Notwithstanding all this turmoil and his declining health Marlborough returned to The Hague in late February to prepare for what was to be his last campaign, and one of his greatest. Once again Marlborough and Villars formed against each other in line of battle, this time along the Avesnes le Comte Arras sector of the lines of Non Plus Ultra (see map). By an exercise of brilliant psychological deception, 113 and a secretive night march covering nearly 40 miles in 18 hours, the Allies penetrated the allegedly impregnable lines without losing a single man Marlborough was now in position to besiege the fortress of Bouchain. 114 Villars, deceived and outmanoeuvred, was helpless to intervene, compelling the fortress’s unconditional surrender on 12 September. Chandler writes “The pure military artistry with which he repeatedly deceived Villars during the first part of the campaign has few equals in the annals of military history … the subsequent siege of Bouchain with all its technical complexities, was an equally fine demonstration of martial superiority.” 115

For Marlborough, though, time had run out. His strategic gains in 1711 made it virtually certain that the Allies would march on Paris the following year, but Harley had no intention of letting the war progress that far and risk jeopardising the favourable terms secured from the secret Anglo French talks (based on the idea that Philip V would remain on the Spanish throne) that had proceeded throughout the year. 116 Marlborough had long had doubts about the Whig policy of ‘No Peace without Spain’, but he was reluctant to abandon his allies (including the Elector of Hanover, Anne’s heir presumptive), and sided with the Whigs in opposing the peace preliminaries. 117 Personal entreaties from the Queen (who had long tired of the war), failed to persuade the Duke. The Elector made it clear that he too was against the proposals, and publicly sided with the Whigs. Nevertheless, Anne remained resolute, and on 7 December 1711 (O.S.) she was able to announce that “notwithstanding those who delight in the arts of war” a sneer towards Marlborough “both time and place are appointed for opening the treaty of a general peace.” 118

Dismissal edit

To prevent the serious renewal of warfare in the spring, it was considered essential to replace Marlborough with a general more in touch with the Queen’s ministers and less in touch with their allies. To do this, Harley (newly created Earl of Oxford) and St John first needed to bring charges of corruption against the Duke, completing the anti Whig, anti war picture that Jonathan Swift was already presenting to a credulous public through his pamphleteering, notably in his Conduct of the Allies (1711). 119 The means to achieve Marlborough’s fall had already been put in train when the Ministry had set up a Parliamentary ‘Commission for the taking, examining and stating the public accounts of the Kingdom’, to report on alleged irregularities during the war.

Two main charges were brought to the House of Commons against Marlborough first, an assertion that over nine years he had illegally received more than 63,000 from the bread and transport contractors in the Netherlands second, that he had taken 2.5% from the pay of the foreign troops in English pay, amounting to 280,000. 120 Despite Marlborough’s refutations (claiming ancient precedent for the first allegation, and, for the second, producing a warrant signed by the Queen in 1702 authorising him to make the deductions in lieu of secret service money for the war), the findings were enough for Harley to persuade the Queen to release her Captain General. On 29 December 1711 (O.S.), before the charges had been examined, Anne, who owed to him the success and glory of her reign, sent her letter of dismissal “I am sorry for your own sake the reasons are become so public which makes it necessary for me to let you know you have render’d it impracticable for you to continue yet longer in my service”. 121 The Tory dominated Parliament concluded by a substantial majority that, ‘the taking of several sums of money annually by the Duke of Marlborough from the contractor for foraging the bread and wagons … was unwarrantable and illegal’, and that the 2.5% deducted from the pay of foreign troops ‘is public money and ought to be accounted for.’ 122 When his successor, the Duke of Ormonde, left London for The Hague to take command of British forces he went, noted Bishop Burnet, with ‘the same allowances that had been lately voted criminal in the Duke of Marlborough’. 123

The Allies were stunned by Marlborough’s dismissal. The French, however, rejoiced at the removal of the main obstacle to the Anglo French talks. Oxford (Harley) and St John had no intention of letting Britain’s new Captain General undertake any action, and issued Ormonde his ‘restraining orders’ in May, forbidding him to use British troops in action against the French an infamous step that ultimately ruined Eugene’s campaign in Flanders. 124 Marlborough continued to make his views known, but he was in trouble attacked by his enemies and the government press with his fortune in peril and Blenheim Palace still unfinished and running out of money and with England split between Hanoverian and Jacobite factions, Marlborough thought it wise to leave the country. After attending Godolphin’s funeral on 7 October (O.S.), he went into voluntary exile to the Continent on 1 December 1712 (O.S.). 125

Return to favour edit

How many marlboro cigarettes?

Metal supergroup altitudes attitude call for ‘booze and cigarettes’
10 packs of cigarettes come in a carton, and there are 20 cigarettes in each pack. If your Dad is buying a carton every 7 10 days that means he’s smoking atleast a pack a day(atleast 20 cigarettes.) Quitting smoking is very difficult and you must understand that before trying to get your Dad to stop. Cigarette addiction has been compared to that of heroin. You see every time your Dad smokes a cigarette it releases feel good chemicals known as dopamine s. The brain becomes dependant on cigarettes to obtain this release and craves it. Unfortunately, cigarette smoking also releases bad toxins called free radicals known to cause cancer. Not to mention all the other bad stuff contained in cigarettes. It’s not just a mental addiction though cigarette smoking is a physical habit too. Many smokers enjoy having a cigarette when driving, after eating, and talking on the phone for instance. If your Dad is going to quit he first must be mentally ready to stop. He really has to want to quit smoking and be committed to over come this addiction. Then he’ll have to conquer the habit of having a cigarette in his hand and inhaling the smoke. He’ll have to find things to replace that cigarette, like a piece of gum or hard candy. Your Dad will have to change his routine, like brushing his teeth right after eating instead of smoking and finding something to keep his mind occupied. If you really want your Dad to quit it’s best to talk to him about it. Tell him nicely and sincerely don’t go scolding or condemning him that you love him and want him to be around for a long time. Explain to your Dad that it will make you very happy to see him stop smoking, because you care about him and don’t want him to compromise his health anymore. It may not happen overnight so be prepared for this to take some time. Don’t push him! Just keep giving these subtle and gentle remarks. If and when your Dad takes the initiative to try quitting this habit. Don’t interfere too much. You may notice him not smoking just don’t bring up the subject the object is to keep his mind off the cigarettes offer to go out somewhere together or play a game to keep him busy. Don’t be surprised if quitting smoking makes your Dad grumpy. You may have to just leave him alone, give him space. You see his body will be going through nicotine withdrawals. He may feel sick, and anxious. His head will hurt and he probably won’t be able to think straight. Be patient with him. Love your Dad and show him support and he may surprise you by trying to overcome this habit. You can help him by being understanding and staying positive. Keep his environment as stress free as possible so he won’t be tempted to smoke. If he can make through the first 2 3 weeks without a cigarette it will get easier for him, but it may take several tries before he’s successful.